Spreadable cheese is not one specific type of product but rather a term that covers several different cheese varieties, including natural soft cheese varieties that can be spread with a knife or a spoon, like Ricotta, Mascarpone, and Chevre (young goat cheese), among others. The term is also often used as a synonym of “cheese spread,” a dish made from soft, spreadable cheese or hard cheese melted over heat, though it’s technically not the same.
However, most often, the term is used to refer to processed cheese products, ones that are usually packaged and sold in plastic containers.
They somewhat resemble cream cheese but have a softer, more liquid, and less moldable texture, slightly reminiscent of room-temperature butter (on that note, cream cheese itself is a type of spreadable cheese but is rarely referred to as one).
Many processed cheese products are additionally flavored with other ingredients, most often savory (herbs, garlic, mushrooms, meats) but sometimes sweet (cream, berries, fruits) or designed to imitate the flavors of traditional cheese varieties (cheddar, mozzarella, gouda, swiss cheese, etc.).